What is Black Box Testing? A Complete Guide Including Types and Techniques
The name of black-box testing is quite obvious that implicates that a system you are interacting with is a mystery box. It means you will be totally blank about the internal working of the system. However, you will be familiar with the behavior of the system.
Black box testing examples are everywhere. So you most often keep doing black-box testing without knowing it. For example, to test your bike or car, what do you do? You most probably drive to make sure that the behavior is either usual or not. Is that so? If yes, it means you have already done black-box testing.
What is black box testing?
It is a most popular testing technique which is used to test the functionality of a system or software without looking at the internal working methodology or coding structure. Furthermore, this testing doesn’t concern with the knowledge of internal paths and implementations details. The system that is being tested is known as the Application Under Test (AUT).
Black box testing is also known as closed-box, behavioral or opaque-box testing. Furthermore, it is also known as eye-to-eye or specification-based testing. This process of entire black box testing is based on software requirements and specifications. The main point of focus is only inputs and output of the system in this testing. This testing doesn’t bother to check how the system processes the inputs to give output.
You might be thinking that which type of system you can test with black-box testing. You can perform black-box testing on any software system. For example, different operating systems, databases, websites and your own custom software and applications. A scenario can be changed but working methodology will be the same. Let’s learn the complete methodology of black-box testing.
How to do black-box testing?
Here are the fundamental steps to perform black-box testing:
Different types of black-box testing
There are numerous types of black-box testing according to different experts. However, here are the most prominent types are as follows:
1. Functional testing
It is the most popular type of black-box testing which deals with the functional requirements and specifications of a system. An application contains several functions or activities that are tested by giving the different tested values and compare the output with the expected results.
For testing a dropdown list, you perform functional testing. You just click on it to verify that either it is expending or not? Furthermore, either it is showing the complete list of values or not? Functional testing has been divided into further types. Here are a few most prominent types of functional testing:
2. Non-Functional testing
There are numerous non-functional aspects apart from the functional requirements that are really important to be tested which enhance the performance and quality of the application.
You will have to check how much your application is secure? What will happen if too many users sign in concurrently? Is application capable to recover from disastrous situations? You answer all these questions by performing non-functional testing.
Non-functional testing is divided into some other major categories. Here are the few most popular types of non-functional testing:
3. Regression Testing
Most of the people don’t consider it a specific type of black-box testing. They consider it a type of functional testing. Regression testing is performed after fixing, modifying the code or other system maintenance activity. It is done to check that either system is working properly after modifying it or not.
Different tools used for black-box testing
There are several tools available on the internet that are extremely helpful in black-box testing. Before picking a specific tool, your mind should be clear that which type of testing you are going to perform? It is because black box testing tools mostly depends on the type of testing.
Black box testing techniques
There are a few other most common types of testing such as graph-based and comparison testing – which deals with the different versions of the same software. So you can use all these testing methods to mitigate the risks.
Black box testing and white box testing
Most people mix black box testing (BBT) with white box testing (WBT). Both are totally different things. In this guide, we have explained the most common differences between both testing techniques for the interest of the user. Here are a few common differences between both:
Black box testing and software development life cycle (SDLC)
BBT is comprised of its own lifecycle that is known as SDLC. This lifecycle covers almost every step of testing.